EARLY CLEAN AIR ACT GREENHOUSE GAS PERMITTING DECISIONS OFFER A PREVIEW OF EPA’S IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

http://blogs.law.columbia.edu/climatechange/2011/04/05/early-clean-air-act-greenhouse-gas-permitting-decisions-offer-a-preview-of-epa%E2%80%99s-implementation-strategy/

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This guidance follows a well established five-step, top-down process, adding particular considerations in the context of GHG emissions:

  1. Identify all available control technologies across a broad spectrum of possibilities and drawing even from experimental or cutting-edge options, focusing particularly on energy efficiency in component as well as overall performance, and notably including Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies.
  2. Eliminate technically infeasible options, based only on physical or technical barriers (anything that has been demonstrated in practice is feasible), with a note that EPA considers CCS to be generally feasible, but may become infeasible due to lack of space, transportation infrastructure (for building), or appropriate geological storage capacity.
  3. Rank remaining control technologies based on “effectiveness” (ability to reduce emissions).
  4. Evaluate most effective controls and document results considering energy, environmental, and economic (including monetary) implications of different choices, considering both positive and negative effects and then eliminating any “inappropriate” options.  Such analysis may include secondary effects, such as the environmental impacts of reduced energy use; but no monetary guidelines are provided.
  5. Select the BACT, which is the most effective option that survived the Step 4 analysis (essentially the strongest option not having inappropriate economic, energy-use, or environmental costs).

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The BACT guideline did not address the possibility of CCS technologies

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